The yongli regime of the Southern Ming Dynasty was in danger, thanks to the three general forces against the Qing Dynasty, setting off the first anti-Qing climax

2022-08-02 0 By

In the first two articles, I wrote about the Hongguang and Longwu regimes of the Southern Ming Dynasty. This article begins with the third and last regime of the Southern Ming Dynasty, the Yongli regime.In the 18-year history of the Southern Ming Dynasty, the Hongguang regime accounted for one year, the Longwu regime for more than one year, and the remaining 16 years were the rule period of the Yongli regime.Compared with the former two regimes of the Southern Ming Dynasty, the Yongli regime lasted longer than them and occupied most of the time of the Southern Ming Dynasty.The reason is that it did not fall quickly because of the two anti-Qing upsurge initiated by the two external armed forces.The first armed force was the three general armies of the Ming Dynasty who surrendered to the Qing dynasty and turned against the Qing dynasty between 1648 and 1649.The second armed force was the peasant rebels represented by the Dashun army and the Daxi Army. They cooperated with the Yongli regime to fight against the Qing Dynasty.In this article, we will start with the climax of the first resistance to the Qing dynasty after the three generals of the Ming Dynasty surrendered to the Qing Dynasty and declared their return to The Ming Dynasty.After Emperor Longwu was killed, the ministers of the Southern Ming were in urgent need of a member of the clan to succeed to the throne, and they chose The king of GUI, Zhu Youlang.King Of GUI Zhu Youlang was the son of Zhu Changying, the seventh son of Emperor Shenzong of Ming Dynasty, and the cousin of Emperor Chongzhen, who was the closest person to Chongzhen among the vassal Kings of Ming Dynasty.Therefore, with the support of a group of ministers, King Zhu Youlang of GUI assumed the imperial position on November 16, 1646. Later, on December 24, he ascended to the throne in Zhaoqing, Guangdong province and proclaimed himself emperor. Yongli was renamed as yuan, and the third and last regime of The Southern Ming dynasty — Yongli regime was established.At the time of the establishment of the Yongli regime, only Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan were left in the Southern Ming dynasty, and the available resources were greatly reduced.For example, Guangdong province was occupied by the Qing army, mainly because of the conflict between the Yongli regime and the Shaowu regime, which gave the Qing army an opportunity to take advantage of.Why, you may ask, is there another Shaowu regime?GuiWang by Lang countries not long after, zhu qing invasion of the news, the southern town of jiangxi province ganzhou came the, ganzhou from GuiWang in guangdong zhaoqing there is quite some distance, but GuiWang fear, ran to the guangxi wuzhou, and the results caused strong dissatisfaction with the guangdong sergeants, they feel GuiWang this is to give up in guangdong, regardless of their own lives.Therefore, some ambitious officials in Guangdong named Zhu Yu 鐭 (Yu), the younger brother of emperor Longwu, as the ruler of the Tang dynasty, and took the title of emperor shaowu in Guangzhou ahead of The king of GUI, Zhu Youlang.When Zhu Youlang, the king of GUI, saw this, he quickly returned to Zhaoqing, Guangdong, and became emperor of the Yuan Yongli.In this way, there were two regimes in the Southern Ming dynasty. They were at the same level with each other, and even fought against each other.When The Shaowu regime was engaged in a civil war with the Yongli regime, the Qing army took advantage of its surprise, invaded Guangdong from Fujian and occupied Guangzhou. Emperor Shaowu committed suicide after being captured, and the Shaowu regime collapsed and lasted only a little more than a month.After the Qing army captured Guangzhou, it began to advance to Zhaoqing, where the Yongli court was located. The King of Guangxi, Zhu Youlang, again fled to Guangxi, and later to Hunan.If you look at the journey of emperor Yongli’s life, his first thought at the slightest sign of trouble was to flee.All his life he had been on the run, so to speak, always on the road, over mountains and rivers.The Yongli emperor was of average ability, unknown in his knowledge of people, and could not govern the country well. He was not qualified to be a king who kept his promise, not to mention the king of the middle.Of course, he can not entirely blame himself, this and the Ming dynasty vassal system also had something to do with.The vassal Kings of the Ming Dynasty were always forbidden to participate in state affairs, nor to engage in any occupation, nor to leave their fiefs, so many people ate, drank and played, and formed a lot of waste, what skills are not.By December 1647, the territory of the Southern Ming was limited to Guangxi, Guizhou and Sichuan. The rest of the territory was mostly occupied by the Qing army, while Yunnan was already the territory of the Great Western Army.The situation was critical. Anyone who looked felt that the future of The Southern Ming dynasty was uncertain and it was about to perish.However, at this critical moment, on February 20, 1648, Qing Dynasty Jiangxi governor Jin Shenghuan, deputy General Wang Deren in Nanchang, April 9, Qing Dynasty Guangdong governor Li Chengdong in Guangzhou, the next year on January 15, The Qing Dynasty Shanxi Datong army jiang 瓖 in Datong, all announced the return to Ming.The life experiences of these people are very similar, and the reasons for opposing Qing And returning to Ming are basically the same.In the Ming dynasty, before they are served company commanders, shanhaiguan surrendered the qing dynasty, qing dynasty and the qing dynasty against Ming has successfully, but because of the qing dynasty has always been more concerned manchu, liaodong han, so cause they can not get a higher position within the qing dynasty, feel wronged himself, feel unfair, and the qing dynasty, to joins the Ming dynasty.This set off the first wave of opposition to the Qing, and many other forces joined in, so that within a year, large parts of Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Hunan, as well as Shanxi, were back under The control of the Southern Ming.Nanming can be said to be another village.The god of fate once again visited The South Ming, whether the South Ming can grasp this opportunity?After Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren rebelled against The Qing dynasty in Nanchang, most other places in Jiangxi also rebelled against the Qing dynasty. Except the southern Jiangxi region with Ganzhou as the center and Shangrao in the east of Jiangxi, the rest of Jiangxi basically submitted to the Southern Ming Dynasty.Jin Shenghuan and Wang Derin thought that they should lead their troops north to capture jiujiang, a port in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and then move eastward to capture Nanjing.After Wang Deren captured Jiujiang, many anti-Qing forces in Hubei and Anhui responded in succession.In order to prevent Jin Shenghuan and Wang Derin from attacking Hubei, the Qing Dynasty hurriedly ordered Kong Youde, King of Dingnan, Geng Zhongming, king of Jingnan, and Shang Kexi, king of Pingnan, who were fighting in Hunan, to withdraw their troops to Hanyang, Hubei, leaving only a small number of troops to defend a few key places in Hunan.Taking advantage of the lack of troops in Hunan, the Court of The Southern Ming dynasty marched into Hunan and recovered most of the region, even changsha, the provincial capital, was almost captured, but the final success was failed.The reason is so, because the old nan Ming again, the internal strife, the key figure is he Tengjiao.This man, whom we have talked about in the previous period, was the governor of Huguang under the Longwu regime. He was proud of his troops and independent of the qing Dynasty. Later, he was defeated by the king kong Youde of Dingnan, Geng Zhongming of Jingnan and Shang Kexi of Pingnan, and was forced to abandon Hunan and flee to Guangxi, where he served in the Yongli court.In order to fight for the first victory in recovering Hunan and capturing Changsha, he ordered his men to attack other Nan Ming generals in Hunan and transferred the Zhongzhen battalion, which was about to capture Changsha, ostensibly to send them to Jiangxi to rescue Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren, but in fact he wanted to keep the credit for capturing Changsha for himself.At this time, at the request of huguang officials, the Qing Dynasty had sent Prince Zheng Ji ‘er Harang to lead the army south and invaded Hunan. He Tengjiao was instantly defeated, and he himself was captured and killed. Hunan belonged to the Qing Dynasty again.He Tengjiao’s image in history has been very good, because he remained loyal to the Ming Dynasty, refused many times to surrender to the Qing Dynasty, fought against the Qing Dynasty, and finally was captured and died bravely.But through his experience, we can see that human nature is very complicated, loyal ministers are not necessarily capable ministers, morality and talent are not necessarily unified.Shi Kefa is also like this, Shi Kefa for the official incorruptible, diligent in political affairs, ultimately rather die than surrender, kill oneself to become a martyr, fully embodies his national integrity, this is really worthy of affirmation, but also very admirable.But he was too loyal and too weak, too wise and too weak to handle the affairs of a state in the complicated circumstances of his time.During the Hongguang period of the Southern Ming Dynasty, he made great mistakes in many major military affairs, including appointing a new king, managing the northern part of the Yangtze River, and implementing the policy of “stealing the troops”.Perhaps he would have been a good magistrate of the county or prefecture, or even a competent official of the six Central Departments, but it would have been difficult for him to be a top official in troubled times.Another example, Maersk, many people think that he is a great traitor, did a lot of bad things, of course, this is right, and did not accuse him.After the Qing army marched south, many people would think that such a man would surrender to the Qing Dynasty, but he did not surrender. Instead, he participated in many battles against the Qing Dynasty. After being defeated, he shaved his head and became a monk.Therefore, human nature is very complex, we can not use a few labels, such as good people, bad people, loyal officials, treacherous officials, etc., a person’s life is determined by his specific actions, there should be a comprehensive evaluation and judgment.For the bad things that good people do in public opinion, there is no need to hide, after others speak out, do not think it is smearing.There is no need to hide the good deed that bad people do in public opinion. After others speak out, don’t think it is whitewashing.I have read a lot of biographies and personal experiences with people around me, which give me a deep feeling and influence on my three views. That is, I understand that human nature is very complicated, so don’t treat people with binary opposition and black-and-white thinking mode.Many people have a moral integrity requirement for a hero or a great person, a very good person.They think they can’t do anything bad, they can’t have a flaw, and if they do, they either hide it, or they justify it, or they’re disillusioned, and they think they’re hypocrites.Such thinking is not healthy, it is sick.To demand and berate people with the demands of God only produces hypocrisy and extreme thinking.Now, when Hunan was repeatedly fought for by the Ming and Qing dynasties, Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren modified their strategy. Fearing that they would be attacked by the Qing army in southern Gannan when they moved north, they prepared to attack the southern Gannan region with Ganzhou as the center, which later proved to be a wrong decision.Cheng-dong li has announced at this time the qing Ming, the guangdong bordering jiangxi for its control, and hunan region bordering jiangxi have been controlled by Ming dynasty, jiangxi of the qing army will only dare not out awkward and camping in the city, most afraid of joint forces encamped against it, how dare to leave the nest, north attack on Kim seng, huan Wang Deren?”Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren led an army to attack southern Jiangxi, but failed to attack for a long time, resulting in the military strength of northern Jiangxi greatly weakened, ordered to suppress the Qing army took the opportunity to enter Jiangxi, captured Jiujiang, all the way south, arrived in Nanchang, Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren received the news, immediately led the army to return aid.In March 1649, The city of Nanchang was finally conquered. Jin Shenghuan committed suicide and Wang Deren was captured and died. Jiangxi was again in the hands of the Qing army.In order to rescue Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren who were trapped in Nanchang, Li chengdong personally led an attack on southern Jiangxi, but failed. Then he led his army back to Guangdong.He later attacked southern Gannan again, only to fail again, falling into a river and drowning while escaping.Li Chengdong before the battle with the Southern Ming, can be said to be invincible, invincible.But after the anti-Qing dynasty returned to Ming dynasty, the qing army several battles, not a win, which is very thought-provoking and aftertaste.Ji ‘er Harang, prince Zheng of the Qing Dynasty, led his army to recapture Hunan.In September 1649, he withdrew from Hunan and returned to China without completing the task set for him, that is, destroying the zhongzhen battalions of the former Dashun army.The reason is that in order to suppress the anti-Qing movement of jiang 瓖, the former Shanxi Datong general army, the Qing Dynasty mobilized a large number of troops gathered in Shanxi, resulting in the empty force of The Beijing division, and the need for Ji Erharang to lead the army back to defend the town.The Southern Ming army took the opportunity to attack Hunan again.On January 15, 1649, Jiang 瓖, commander of the Shanxi Datong Army of the Qing Dynasty, announced in Datong that he would return to The Ming Dynasty, which aroused the response from all parts of Shanxi.In a very short period of time, with the exception of Taiyuan and a few places, all parts of Shanxi declared their allegiance to the Southern Ming, and there were anti-Qing movements in Shaanxi and Gansu.All these restrained the great military power of the Qing Dynasty and supported the struggle against the Qing dynasty in the south.Shanxi was close to Beijing, the seat of the Central government of the Qing Dynasty, and its geographical location was extremely important. The Qing dynasty mobilized a large number of troops to suppress the anti-Qing movement of Jiang 瓖, and even made Duergun himself.Moreover, the Qing army, which had put down the anti-Qing movement of Jin Shenghuan and Wang Deren in Jiangxi, did not go further into Guangdong, but returned north.After ji ‘erharang conquered Hunan, he led his army back to the north before destroying the zhongzhen battalion composed of the former Dashun army, leaving the local forces empty and being counterattacked by the Southern Ming Dynasty.Because of jiang 瓖’s anti-Qing movement in Shanxi and the ensuing anti-Qing movement in other parts of the north, most of the Qing army was tied down, leaving the Capital army empty and in urgent need of them to return to the town.Under the continuous siege and suppression of the Qing army, Shanxi was again occupied by the Qing Dynasty.During the period 1648-1649, most of the Qing dynasty’s energy was devoted to the suppression of these anti-Qing movements. It was unable to attack the Southern Ming court further, and the Southern Ming was able to breathe.Cheng-dong li army Ming loyalist of hunan, guangdong and jiangxi Kim seng huan, Wang Deren army, shanxi ginger 瓖 army, even amid huge, but because of various reasons, the lack of global consciousness, in their own way is essentially, failed to unified action, the last is the qing divide-and-conquer, good KangQing climax situation for the first time it has ruined.By 1650, the above anti-Qing movement had been largely suppressed, and the Qing dynasty decided to start attacking the southern Ming regions again.In early 1650, the Qing Dynasty ordered the Kings kong Youde, Geng Zhongming, and Shang Kexi to march south again. Kong Youde attacked Guangxi from Hunan, and Geng Zhongming and Shang Kexi took Guangdong from Jiangxi.After the Entry of the Qing Dynasty into the Pass, the total number of troops was about 100,000, but in a short period of time, they were able to wipe out the dashun regime, the Hongguang regime of the Southern Ming Dynasty, and the Longwu regime, occupying the whole north and half of the south.In addition to the eight banners army, more or implement the strategy of “using han to control Han”, with the surrender of a large number of Han generals and troops to attack the Southern Ming.The three generals and the three Kings who surrendered to the Qing and then returned to the Ming were all Han.Under the attack of the three Kings, by November 1650, the land controlled by the Yongli regime of the Southern Ming dynasty had shrunk back to the time when it was founded, and the Offensive of the Qing army did not abate.When the yongli court was dying, at this time has a firm foothold in Yunnan peasant rebels – Daxi army, decided to join the Ming resistance, daxi army for at least 10 years.It can be said that before 1651, the main force of the Southern Ming was the official army, but since then, the Southern Ming mainly relied on the peasant army, mainly the Western army, to fight against the Qing Dynasty, and only survived.In the next article, I will talk about the Great Western Army, welcome your attention.References: History of Ming Dynasty;Draft of The History of qing Dynasty;Gu Cheng, History of the Southern Ming Dynasty;A History of the Southern Ming Dynasty: 1644-1662 by Stuart Lin