How much heavy equipment did the 1st Marine Division abandon at the Battle of Jangjin-ho 14 guns and 7 tanks

2022-06-10 0 By

Long lu 1 teacher in tianjin battle of lake paid a heavy price on the night of November 27 1950, nine Chinese voluntary army corps twelve division three army of about 160000 people in the long lake area, tianjin raided by almon DE major-general command troops the tenth army, oliver p. command of general Smith of the 1 st division, the United States Marine corps volunteers surrounded and attacked.After suffering heavy casualties, the American forces broke out of the encirclement and retreated all the way to Hungnam.The withdrawal of U.S. Marine units was supported by the U.S. Army’s 31st Regimental Combat Team, which suffered heavy casualties and near-total annihilation in an all-out attack by volunteers.Reports of casualties at Chosin Lake helped highlight the intensity of the fighting, according to a U.S. post-battle analysis of the battle.These numbers also confirm the effectiveness of air power in support of Marine corps ground combat operations: Volunteer losses caused by U.S. Ground forces: 15,000 killed, 7,500 wounded: (from Marine aviation fire) Volunteer losses: 10,000 killed, 5,000 wounded:Total 37,500, 25,000 killed and 12,500 wounded.1st Marine Division casualties at Jangjin-ho: 604 killed, 114 killed from wounds, 192 missing, 3845 wounded: Total losses: 4,395.The unofficial swap ratio is 8.5 to 1.It speaks volumes about the tenacity of the Marines’ defense and the ferocity of the volunteer attack, and these figures do not include any non-combat losses.It is well known that the Marine Corps has lost more than 7,300 non-combat personnel.In addition to the loss of men, the 1st Marine division lost a lot of heavy equipment.Maj. Gen. Smith, commander of the 1st Marine Division, wrote to the SECRETARY of the U.S. Navy after the war admitting that the Americans had lost 10 of 18 155mm howitzers and 4 of 30 105mm howitzers during the withdrawal, and that the COLUMN of American tanks that brought up the rear of the withdrawal convoy had lost 7 tanks.Establishment and Equipment of the 1st Marine Division According to the annex to the third volume of U.S. Marine Operations in Korea by Lynn Montrose, the 1st Marine Division on October 8, 1950 had a strength of 23,533 by itself, 78 by the U.S. Army and 2,159 by the Korean Marines, for a total of 25,770.At the time of the Jangjin-ho battle on November 27, the 1st Marine Division had 25,166 soldiers of its own, 73 from the U.S. Army and 234 from the British Royal Marines, totaling 25,473 soldiers.The strength as of 15 December was 19,362, with 14 attached United States Army personnel and 144 British Royal Marines, for a total of 19,520.From October 8 to December 15, 1950, the 1st Marine Division had 2,159 Korean soldiers in addition to 23,533 U.S. soldiers.The size of the force is equivalent to 2.5 divisions of the volunteer army.The division’s main strength was composed of its three infantry regiments, the 1st, 5th, and 7th Marine regiments, each of which consisted of three 1,000-man rifle battalions, a 4.2-inch heavy mortar company, an anti-tank company, and a headquarters and service battalion.Overall, each regiment has an average strength of about 3,500 officers and soldiers.The three rifle battalions of each infantry regiment (there were nine in the division) formed three rifle companies, one rifle company and one headquarters and service company.Each rifle company consists of three rifle platoons, a 30-calibre LMG platoon, and a mortar detachment equipped with three 60mm mortars.Each rifle platoon consisted of about forty-five men, divided into three 13-man squads (divided into three four-man fire groups) and a platoon consisting of platoon leaders, platoon sergeants, guides, messengers, radio men, and ambulance men.The battalion gun battery formed three heavy machine gun platoons, each armed with six 30-caliber water-cooled heavy machine guns and one 81-mm mortar platoon (three detachments, each armed with two mortars).The battalion headquarters and service company consist of the battalion staff officers and their soldier clerks and technicians, a communications platoon, a mobile convoy, a naval medical unit assigned to the battalion, and several supporting weapons liaison groups, such as forward air controllers and artillery forward observers.The 4th Regiment of the 1st Continental Division, the 11th Marine Regiment is an artillery regiment.It formed three 105mm howitzer battalions (each armed with 18 guns, and each battery with 6 guns) and a 155mm howitzer battalion (the fourth battalion armed with 18 155mm howitzers).Each of the three 105mm artillery battalions was assigned to an infantry regiment for operational control, and the commander of each artillery battalion served as artillery adviser to the commander of the infantry regiment.The 155mm Grenade Battalion is a divisional support unit and is technically under the direct control of the division commander, although it is common for 155mm howitzer companies, or even entire battalions, to be placed under operational control of the division’s subordinate headquarters.The 1st battalion of the 11th Marine Regiment was used to support the 5th Marine Regiment, the 2nd to support the 1st Marine Regiment, and the 3rd to support the 7th Marine Regiment.The 4th battalion of the 11th Marine Regiment, usually called by the division, arrived at Yudam-ni in the evening of November 27 to support the 5th and 7th regiments in order to strengthen the firepower of the westward advance.Pershing and Sherman Tanks In late 1950, the 1st Tank Battalion of the 1st Marine Division was organized into four companies: A, B, C, D, and Battalion Headquarters Company.Companies A, B, C and D are all equipped with M-26 Pershing tanks.Each company has three platoons, for example The B companies are tactically numbered B-11 to B-15, B-21 to B-25, and B-31 to B-35, in addition the company commander and deputy commander ride b-41 and B-42.Each company also had three M4A3 Sherman scrubber tanks and one M32 tank rescue vehicle (with machine guns but without artillery), giving a total of 21 tanks per company.A platoon of 9 M4A3 flamethrowers.The anti-tank companies of the three Marine infantry regiments (1st, 5th, and 7th) each had an anti-tank platoon with five Pershing tanks, bringing the total to 15.There were 108 tanks in the division.There are four companies A, B, C and D under the engineering battalion of the 1st Marine Division, as well as directly subordinate companies and service companies.In the Battle of Changjin-ho, they were responsible for repairing Bridges and paving roads, blasting, clearing roadblocks and ensuring smooth roads, as well as serving as combat infantry. They built two airstrips for c-47 twin-engine transport planes to take off and land, and worked closely with various arms to lay track Bridges over the Shuimen Bridge within a limited time.On Nov. 27, five companies under the 1st Marine Division s Sanitary Battalion were stationed at the rear hospital of the division s headquarters in Hamheung-Hungnam.Companies C and E operate the forward hospital in Hagaru;D company is with the 1st Marine regiment in Koto Ri.1st Marine division to participate in the battle of long jin lake of the main forces for the 1st Marine regiment, 5th Marine regiment, 7 Marine regiment, 11th marines regiment, tank battalion, engineer battalion, communications, health, car camp, it evacuate to the ancient soil, the U.S. army war forces and its attachment, south Korean forces the total strength of about 15000 people.According to the history of the battle of Jangjin-Ho, the 5th and 7th regiments of the 1st Marine Division made some progress on the hill on December 2, and volunteer resistance remained strong.On December 3, Lizberg reached the top of the hill between Yudam-ri and Hagaru-ri.However, there were still enemy forces between him and us, and he was running low on petrol.In a slow-moving convoy, the engine had quite a bit of idling, and in cold weather anyway, the engine had to be turned on often.All of this consumes a lot of gasoline.At Lizberg’s request, we dropped gasoline precisely in front of the truck convoy.Unfortunately, he did not ask for diesel, which later resulted in the loss of several artillery pieces.A Marine convoy passes through Hellfire Valley, picking up abandoned vehicles During the day of December 3, Lizberg continues to push up the mountain.At 1630 we sent in tanks and ROYAL Marine Commandos to clear the volunteers from the roads near the camp.At 1935 hours the advance of the 7th Marine Regiment reached the outer perimeter.They continued on our lines during the night, with the 5th following the 7th.In the dark, it takes a long time to move troops from cover positions into the road.When they were only a few miles from Hagaru-ri, some of the trailers towing the 155mm howitzers ran out of diesel, bringing the convoy to a halt.Volunteer military forces fired mortars and automatic weapons as they closed in on the convoy.Some trailers were damaged.We later sent in a column with diesel fuel, but not all the guns could be withdrawn because the trailers were out of order.We lost 10 out of 18 155mm howitzers and 4 out of 30 105mm howitzers.The guns were damaged and later air raids were carried out on them.Despite the heavy losses, the withdrawal of three artillery battalions was a remarkable achievement with the loss of these artillery pieces.According to Lynn Montrose’s book, U.S. Marine Operations in Korea, Volume iii, on Maj. Gen. Smith’s orders, the tanks were placed at the rear of the 1st Marine Division’s retreating convoy, under cover from the infantry of the rearguard Regiment.At about midnight, without waiting for the 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, the tank column began to descend, with only the 1st Marine Division Reconnaissance Company as a protection force.Lieutenant Haggart’s platoon of 28 men guarded the last 10 tanks, while two other platoons covered the middle and heads of the column.Behind the last tank were thousands of refugees.Volunteer soldiers mingled with them, biding their time to attack, while Haggart’s job was to keep the refugees at arm’s length from the tank column.As the 40 tanks moved slowly around the icy curve, their lights on and their dismounted crews acting as guides, progress was slow.Shortly afterwards, the brake of the ninth tank machine at the rear of the column failed, causing the rear of the column to stop for 45 minutes.The rest of the tanks clanged on, and the last nine remaining tanks were stuck about 2,000 yards southwest of the main supply line, Heights 1457.Five volunteer soldiers emerged from the refugees and a voice said in English that they wanted to surrender.(According to the war history of our army, the personnel of the 58th and 60th divisions were still able to fight, but there were only more than 100 of them. Under the leadership of CAI Qunfan, the chief of staff of the 60th Division, there were still dozens of them left 2 kilometers away from the Watergate Bridge.)The American tank Haggart, with its engines warming up, approached them gingerly, with Corporal George holding a Browning automatic rifle for cover.All of a sudden, the leading volunteer soldier retreated to one side, and the other four volunteers brought out hidden assault rifles and grenades.Haggart pulled the trigger of his carbine, but it didn’t fire because of the cold.The former Marine All-star football player then ran into the enemy, brandishing his carbine and smashing the skull of a volunteer soldier, but a grenade explosion wounded him, and the ambush developed into an attack from the flanks, heights and rear.Before the remaining volunteers could open fire, Corporal George took down four other volunteers with a Browning automatic rifle.The battle became an almost indistinguishable free-for-all between friend and foe.Haggart’s platoon slowly retreated, and the last tank and its personnel were captured by the volunteers.The crew on the penultimate tank did not respond and the soldiers knocked the turret of the tank with rifle butts to distract them from the threat.In the process, Haggart was shocked to see Private Dermott hit hard by an explosion from a charge pack dropped on the tank by the volunteers, and slide down the cliff again, motionless.The rest of his platoon, believing him dead, continued to retreat, finding the next seven tanks abandoned by their crews with tank hatches wide open.Wearing body armor and covering the retreat, Amiyot lay prone and opened fire as a volunteer grenade hit him in the back and exploded. Amiyot calmly fired as if nothing had happened., Owen hargreaves and his remaining two dozen men, this is a precarious situation, but in the absence of further casualties they fight, at the same time, successfully solve the tank crews to heading tanks of the brake failure, driving two tanks out along one of the tank is by a corporal, driving, he has never been opened before the tank.He told Haggart, “I’m going to get this tank out of here even if I’m killed!”With sheer determination and luck, he steered the tank to safety through icy roads and obstacles ahead.After the last of the 1st Marine Division had crossed the bridge, Captain Gould and his engineer sabotage team had waited for hours. With two tanks and Haggart’s platoon passing, he was confident that all the Marines who could be rescued had safely crossed the bridge.On this assumption, which turned out to be false, Warrant Officer 1st Class Willie Harrison pressed the detonator.The losses of the reconnaissance platoon were three missing (two of whom were later changed to dead) and 12 wounded.The crews of the two tanks behind the tank column were missing and presumed dead.The Americans also lost seven tanks.The casualties of Haggart’s platoon would have been even worse had some of his men not been wearing Marine body armor made of lightweight plastic.Developed by scientists at the Naval Field Medical Research Laboratory at Camp Lejeune, the common utility jacket contains a thin fiberglass plate that stops most shells or grenade fragments.Five hundred jackets were flown to the 1st Marine Division for field testing, but other supplies took higher priority at Chojin Lake, and only 50 jackets were worn in combat by the Marine Division reconnaissance Company.